The Harrier II Plus (AV-8B), manufactured by BAE SYSTEMS and Boeing, is a VSTOL fighter and attack aircraft operational with the US Marine Corps, the Spanish Navy and the Italian Navy. [46][47], The Harrier's VTOL abilities allowed it to be deployed from very small prepared clearings or helipads as well as normal airfields. During the 42 days of combat, 86 Harrier IIs flew 3,380 combat sorties (4,112 combat hours) and delivered more than 6 million pounds of ordnance. The Harrier was outfitted with updated avionics to replace the basic systems used in the Kestrel;[N 4] a navigational-attack system incorporating an inertial navigation system, originally for the P.1154, was installed and information was presented to the pilot by a head-up display and a moving map display. [N 9] The Sea Harrier was also fitted with navigational aids for carrier landings, modifications to reduce corrosion by seawater and a raised bubble-canopy covered cockpit for better visibility. [87] No. [150][151][152][153][154][155][156][157][158], The Swiss Air Force was interested in purchasing some Harriers as its doctrine was to operate in hidden and disperse locations during the Cold War. A Harrier II+ ‘radar bird’ of Marine Attack Squadron (VMA) 542, ‘Flying Tigers’ based at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina, in the mid-1990s.. An AV-8B Night Attack jet of VMA-214 ‘Black Sheep’ as it appeared in 1989. Since the Harrier T.2 is technically just a lengthened GR.1 airframe with a larger vert stab, i'm guessing that is the justification they used for giving the Harrier GR.1 SRAAMs.Just seems like bending the rules a bit to me to create a cash cow premium to replace the Hunter FGA.9. Several hardpoints were installed, two under each wing and one underneath the fuselage; two 30 mm (1.2 in) ADEN cannon gun pods could also be fitted to the underside of the fuselage. The AV-8B is the second generation (discounting the prototypes) of the British Hawker Siddeley Harrier "Jump Jet", upgraded by McDonnell Douglas with a bigger engine, bigger wing and more armament attachment points and raised canopy, as it was eventually also used in the RAF as the GR.5. "V/STOL: Neither Myth nor Promise – But Fact". Discover (and save!) The APG-65 is a jam-resistant, all-weather detection and tracking radar. [32] The ski-jump technique for launching Harriers from Royal Navy aircraft carriers was extensively trialled at RNAS Yeovilton from 1977. The Hawker Siddeley Harrier is a British military aircraft. Armament By default, the AV-8B is always armed with a 25 mm cannon that is loaded with 300 rounds of high-explosive (HE) ammunition. [59] Water injection was necessary in order to generate maximum thrust, if only for a limited time, and was typically used during landing, especially in high ambient temperatures. ", Harrier GR.3 in Beijing Aviation Museum, China, "Harrier – World's First Fixed-wing V/STOL Weapons System", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hawker_Siddeley_Harrier&oldid=997088420, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, Articles with dead external links from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Aircraft specs templates using more performance parameter, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, XW269 – Airworld Aviation Museum Caernarfon Wales. The AV-8B Harrier was a Short Take Off and Vertical Landing strike aircraft. RAF Tornado GR4. When I saw the Harrier hovering and flying backwards under control, I reckoned I'd seen everything. [N 8][13], In addition to normal flight controls, the Harrier has a lever for controlling the direction of the four vectoring nozzles. The Maverick AGM-65 anti-tank missile is installed on the Italian Harrier II Plus. The prototype Hawker Harrier, wearing B Conditions markings (T-60), made its maiden flight at Brooklands in the hands of Hawker test pilot P.W.S. Substantial changes were the Lift Improvement Devices, to increase VTOL performance; at the same time several airframe components were restored or replaced to extend the life of the aircraft. AV-8B aircraft are being fitted with the Northrop Grumman Litening II targeting and reconnaissance pod. Armament. Some officers went so far as to deride conventional aircraft, unfavourably comparing to the. [9] Rather than using rotors or a direct jet thrust, the P.1127 had an innovative vectored thrust turbofan engine, the Pegasus. [24] Work continued on elements of the project, such as a supersonic PCB-equipped Pegasus engine, with the intention of developing a future Harrier variant for the decades following cancellation. First operational deployment of the GR9 was in January 2007 at Kandahar in Afghanistan as part of the NATO International Security Force (ISAF). The, Italy also became an operator of a "Harrier Carrier", but they only operated the second-generation. [125], Due to the Harrier's unique characteristics it attracted a large amount of interest from other nations, often as attempts to make their own V/STOL jets were unsuccessful, such as in the cases of the American XV-4 Hummingbird and the German VFW VAK 191B. The Harrier II is unique among American military aircraft as one of few to have been adapted from a foreign design. [134][135] The deal was later cancelled by the UK as part of a diplomatic backlash after China invaded Vietnam in 1979. [38] The AV-8C and the remaining AV-8A Harriers were retired by 1987. This proposal would have increased the wing area from 200 to 250 square feet (19 to 23 m2), allowing for significant increases in weapons load and internal fuel reserves. [111] In support of naval operations, the USMC devised and studied several methods to further integrate the Harrier. It was subsonic and it could not carry much of armament. [119], The AV-8A's abilities in air-to-air combat were tested by the Marine Corps by conducting mock dogfights with McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs; these exercises trained pilots to use the vectoring-in-forward-flight (VIFF) capability to outmanoeuvre their opponents and showed that the Harriers could act as effective air-to-air fighters at close range. The Harrier II is unique among American military aircraft as one of few to have been adapted from a foreign design. 1 Squadron operated from the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes. [104] However the second generation Harrier IIs saw action in Bosnia, Iraq, and Afghanistan. surface targets under day and night visual conditions.” The jet is designed to carry a considerable armament load, including Sidewinder and Maverick missiles. The Italian Navy has 18 and the Spanish Navy 17. The British South Atlantic force was built up with the addition of GR3 and FRS.1 Harriers bringing the total jump jet strength to around 40 aircraft carriers Hermes and Invincible. "BAe Harrier GR3 Aircraft History – Post-World War Two Aircraft". The FA2 first flew in 1988 and entered service in 1993. [N 1] According to Air Chief Marshal Sir Patrick Hine this interest may have been stimulated by the presence of Air Staff Requirement 345, which sought a V/STOL ground attack fighter for the Royal Air Force. [33][34], In the late 1960s the British and American governments held talks on producing Harriers in the United States. In 1977 Li Chiang, the Chinese Minister of Foreign Trade, visited the UK and British Aerospace organised a Harrier flying demonstration. I have the Hasegawa kit, which as always comes without weapons (bastrds!). In the air-to-surface role, the APG-65 radar provides high-resolution, long-range surface mapping and detection, and tracking of land-based and sea-based targets. [111][112] Since then the Sea Control Ship concept has been subject to periodic re-examinations and studies, often in the light of budget cuts and questions over the use of supercarriers. – AD0855032". "The Small Aircraft Carrier: A Re-Evaluation of the Sea Control Ship". [80], The McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II is the latest Harrier variant, a second-generation series to replace the first generation of Harrier jets already in service; all the above variants of the Harrier have mainly been retired with the Harrier II taking their place in the RAF, USMC and FAA. The engine's thrust is directed through the four rotatable nozzles. 56 aircraft were built for the Royal Navy. Korea was the only exception, as they used the Black Eagle instead. The Harrier GR.1 has an impressive climb rate, though it is put down by Soviet jets that it may face, like the MiG-19PT, Su-7B, and Su-7BKL.The Harrier's climb rate also suffers the more armament it carries; even just 4 SRAAMs drops the climb rate from 80 m/s to 68.2 m/s. The Hawker Siddeley Harrier astounded the world with its unique ability to take-off and land vertically utilizing vectored thrust from its powerful 8000kg thrust engine. Though foreign to American readers at first, one must keep in mind that it became something of standard practice at this time in history to feature an aircraft sans fixed armament. [81] The option of cooperation with MDD was chosen in 1982 over the more risky isolated approach. As a deterrent against further Argentine invasion attempts, No. "USAF Evaluation of the Harrier GR Mk 1. The 90° vector is normally deployed for VTOL manoeuvring. Alternatives to U.S. Sea-Based Air Power". The short answer is simply, the Harrier is a difficult aircraft to fly. Information about the AV-8B Harrier II Plus Vertical/Short Take Off and Landing (V/STOL) aircraft, including armament/weapons, radar, engine, mission/role, U.S. defense budget and spending, modifications, upgrades, RDT&E, and much more. Its primary armament comes in … [36][37] The USMC upgraded their AV-8As to the AV-8C configuration; this programme involved the installation of ECM equipment and adding a new inertial navigation system to the aircraft's avionics. The Harriet Jet specialist is responsible for working on the latest state of the art AV-8B Harrier II Plus Jump Jet. As this is unrealistic - and offers little to no combat value - it is safe to say that 5,000 feet is a fair value to assign the Harrier. The Harrier's ability to operate with minimal ground facilities and very short runways allowed it to be used at locations unavailable to other fixed-wing aircraft. Equipping 4 x 1,000 lb G.P. I am in middle of making a model of this aircraft and i would like to know what the maximum armament of this aircraft was for it to still have VTOL capabilities. . "British bid to sell China arms provoked Soviet ire: secret files.". [61], The Harrier has been described by pilots as "unforgiving". First tested in concept in 1960, the aircraft went through many periods of testing and modification prior to acceptance by the Royal Air Force and other nations in 1974. [24][83] An early demonstration of the Harrier's capabilities was the participation of two aircraft in the Daily Mail Transatlantic Air Race in May 1969, flying between St Pancras railway station, London and downtown Manhattan with the use of aerial refuelling. The Harrier GR9 aircraft came into service on October 2006. [93] The Harrier GR.3s focused on providing close air support to the ground forces on the Falklands and attacking Argentine positions; suppressing enemy artillery was often a high priority. 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